Jasper County was one of the original 23 counties at the creation of the Republic of Texas in 1836. By December 4, 1837, the boundaries of the county were established. The next task was choosing a county seat. While there was much disagreement over the location, leaders finally settled on the town of Jasper of January 14, 1844.
During the Civil War years (1861-1865), Jasper housed a Confederate quartermaster depot. In 1865, Jasper's populace stood at 1,200. The steady incline of population was aided largely by arrival of the Gulf, Colorado, and Santa Fe Railways in the early part of the 20th century, which made the town a carrier for the manufacture of timber products.